Barriers to Mental Healthcare Access
RQ: What are the barriers to mental healthcare access experienced by West/ Central African Immigrants in the US.
· Find Seven articles based on the topic not older than 5 years.
· Identify the keywords and databases you used to find your five articles. Provide full references for the Seven articles you selected.
· Explain why you chose these articles and how they relate to your program area. (Psychology)
· Develop and submit an annotated bibliography consisting of five articles chosen from among the seven articles you previously identified.
· At least one article relevant to the gap you identified should be included in the annotated bibliography.
Mental health conditions are dominant among expecting mothers during the perinatal period. The perinatal stage begins at twenty-two weeks gestation, and it ends seven days after birth. Mental health conditions might be prior, or they may develop during the perinatal period. Post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder are possible unfavorable outcomes that can appear after pregnancy. Perinatal mental health is a critical risk aspect for mother mortality rates. Twenty three percent of women who died during the postnatal period suffered from mental health conditions. Not only that, mothers with mental health issues can result in poor pregnancy outcomes like pre-term birth, low birthweight, or even mediocre infant-mother interaction. In a like manner, perinatal mental health has focused on growing racial inequalities in access to mental health services. Unequal treatment has resulted in ethnic minorities having an increased burden of mental health conditions versus the white population. Methods: A survey utilizing a questionnaire was formed. The survey questionnaire was generated for online and paper format purposes. The questionnaire included a combination of questions types like free-text questions and fixed-responses questions. After that, demographic information was collected containing ethnicity, gender, age, whether or not you have children, and birthplace. Survey questions covered the accompanying subjects: consciousness of help for perinatal emotional well-being issues, insight of help needs and getting to help and opinions about how support ought to be created later on. Results: Analysis of the qualitative data in the open-ended survey questions revealed three themes about women’s experiences of perinatal mental health problems and support services: suffering in silence, the need for a safe space to talk and to be listened to, and what about women like me. Most women stated that accessing support for mental health conditions during their perinatal period was very challenging. In fact, over two-thirds of the participants were uncapable of distinguishing any sources of support especially assistance with mental health conditions. This questionnaire enclosed a relatively large response from women with a wide variety of ethnic backgrounds. Conclusion: Women from minority ethnic gatherings face boundaries to looking for help for perinatal mental health because of progressing stigma, the helpless practices of health experts and improperly planned administrations. Healthcare providers should guarantee that all women can get to culturally appropriate spaces to talk and be listened to in health and community settings.
Watson, H., & Soltani, H. (2019, October 1). Perinatal mental ill health: The experiences of women from ethnic minority groups. Retrieved November 3, 2020, from CINAHL
The goal of this study was to explore health experts’ perspectives about perinatal mental health services for black and minority ethnic women. Qualitive data was collected from healthcare professionals through one-on-one interviews and focus groups. Participants came from neighborhood clinics and hospitals. Individuals declared that there were insufficiencies in training and a lack of confidence when dealing and recognizing the needs of black women when managing perinatal mental health problems. Improper training is linked to inadequate care and treatment. This study suggest that black women are more vulnerable to inadequacy in healthcare. Effective administration of perinatal mental health condition requires a more vigorous execution of existing rules, more powerful techniques to address the full range of need, improved proficient preparing and a more planned multiagency approach.
Edge, D. (2015). Falling through the net — Black and minority ethnic women and perinatal mental healthcare: Health professionals’ views. General Hospital Psychiatry, 32(1), 17-25.
Depression and anxiety are common during pregnancy and are competent at higher rates among women who are racial and ethnic minorities. Since discouragement and anxiety impact maternal and baby results, interceding to improve perinatal mental wellness should be a need for all healthcare suppliers. Although, in the United States, various boundaries including absence of absence of mental health providers limit access to care. All-inclusive screening has been suggested and here we analyze how universal screening can assist medical attendants with improving the mental state of childbearing ladies. Presentations that are at present being used to improve perinatal uneasiness are stated and include: psychopharmacology, psychological social treatment, relational psychotherapy, and care. Suggestions for future examination and medical services framework changes are made.
Gennaro, S., O’Connor, C., McKay, E. A., Gibeau, A., Aviles, M., Hoying, J., & Melnyk, B. M. (2020). PERINATAL ANXIETY AND DEPRESSION in Minority Women. MCN: The American Journal of Maternal Child Nursing, 45(3), 138–144. https://doiorg.ezproxy.lib.apsu.edu/10.1097/NMC.0000000000000611
Drawing on quantitative information from a huge report, we investigated healthcare specialists’ view of the consideration and assistance gave to ladies from Black and minority ethnic foundations living in the US. Breaking down reactions to a questionnaire, we found that the needs of this population were not sufficiently tended to. In addition, insufficient communication being revealed. Various data pathways and barriers to support care were distinguished. More work is expected to investigate not just how best to recognize variety in care needs inside more seasoned populaces, yet in addition to plan and convey responsive administrations in like manner.
Yu, J., Saltus, R., & Jarvis, P. (2017). A survey of service providers’ views on care and support provision for older women from Black and minority ethnic backgrounds in Wales: Implications for policy and practice. Health Care for Women International, 38(7), 715 731.
Untreated perinatal depression and anxiety are significant public health problems that disproportionately affect ethno-racial minorities. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a coordinated perinatal mental health care model, focusing on socially disadvantaged, ethno-racial minority women, with an intersectional-feminist perspective. The treatment model was grounded in intersectionality theory with the aim of addressing complex social vulnerability factors in the context of perinatal mental health treatment. Participants were 67 perinatal women (64% African American or Hispanic/Latina) referred by medical providers at an urban teaching hospital. Results demonstrated high treatment engagement and effectiveness, with 65.9% of participants demonstrating reliable improvement in symptoms. Moreover, African American and Hispanic/Latina patients had similar treatment outcomes compared to White patients, despite facing greater socio-economic disadvantages. Findings indicate that the treatment model may be a promising approach to reducing perinatal mental health disparities. Strengths and limitations of the study are discussed within the intersectionality framework.
Stevens, N. R., Heath, N. M., Lillis, T. A., McMinn, K., Tirone, V., & Sha, ini, M. (2018). Examining the effectiveness of a coordinated perinatal mental health care model using an intersectional-feminist perspective. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 41(5), 627–640. https://doiorg.ezproxy.lib.apsu.edu/10.1007/s10865-018-9973-0
Stigma associated with mental health problems is a significant public health issue. Patterns of stigma and discrimination vary between and within communities and are related to beliefs about mental health. Population approaches to addressing stigma rarely consider diverse cultural understandings of mental health. Members of the major black and minority ethnic communities in participated in mental health awareness workshops that were designed and delivered by community healthcare providers. Questionnaires measuring knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intent were completed before and after the intervention. Community led approaches that acknowledge cultural constructs of mental health were received positively by community groups. The study found significant reported stigma in relation to public protection, marriage, shame and contribution, but also high levels of recovery optimism. The workshops resulted in significant positive change in relation to knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intent amongst participants, with most aspects of stigma showing significant improvement, with the exception of dangerousness. The paper argues community approaches to tackling stigma are more valuable than top-down public education and could form the basis of national initiatives. Refinements to the evaluation framework are considered.
Knifton L, Gervais M, Newbigging K, Mirza N, Quinn N, Wilson N, HunkinsHutchison E, Knifton, L., Gervais, M., Newbigging, K., Mirza, N., Quinn, N., Wilson, N., & Hunkins-Hutchison, E. (2010). Community conversation: addressing mental health 45(4), 497–504.