Assignment: Evaluation Of Research Ethics

Assignment: Evaluation Of Research Ethics

Assignment: Evaluation Of Research Ethics 150 150 Prisc

Assignment: Evaluation Of Research Ethics

Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics

Article Citation and Permalink 

(APA format)

Article 1 

Navti, L. K., Atanga, M. B., & Niba, L. L. (2017). Associations of out of school physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and socioeconomic status with weight status and adiposity of Cameroon children. BMC obesity4, 35. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40608-017-0171-3

Point Description
Broad Topic Area/Title Childhood obesity
Problem Statement 

(What is the problem research is addressing?)

With overweight/obesity affecting children in both developed and developing countries, it has become real global health. Considering that the number of overweight/obese children is only increasing, the research problem is the connection between sedentary lifestyle, physical inactivity, and socioeconomic status with childhood obesity.
Purpose Statement 

(What is the purpose of the study?)

The purpose of the study was to investigate how selected factors (out of school physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and socioeconomic indicators contribute to children’s weight status and adiposity.
Research Questions 

(What questions does the research seek to answer?)

Does physical activity have an independent inverse relationship with overweight/obesity in children? 

Is there a positive relationship between out of school physical activity, socioeconomic status, and sedentary lifestyle with weight status and adiposity in children if variables are adjusted?

Are sedentary time and physical activity predicted by socioeconomic status?

Define Hypothesis 

(Or state the correct hypothesis based upon variables used)

Null hypothesis- physical activity does not have an independent inverse relationship with overweight/obesity in children. 

Alternate hypothesis- the level of physical activity and sedentary lifestyle are more impacting than the level of socioeconomic status on weight status and adiposity.

Identify Dependent and Independent Variables and Type of Data for the Variables In an experimental study, a researcher examines the influence of one variable over the other. The variable that the experimenter manipulates or changes is the independent variable, while the one being tested in the experiment is the dependent variable. 

Independent variable- weight status and adiposity of school children

Dependent variable- school physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and socioeconomic status

Types of data for variables- they are quantitative since they represent amounts (weight). The levels of physical activity, socioeconomic status, and sedentary lifestyle can also be quantified.

Population of Interest for Study Children in both developed and developing countries. It is important to understand some of the practices that expose them to health risks such as obesity and how to intervene, particularly through non-pharmacological means.
Sample 720 children were selected to participate in the study. After some dropped, the final sample contained 522 children (Navti et al., 2017, p. 2).
Sampling Method The sample of children (5-12 years) was randomly selected from 6 primary schools in Mezam Division in northwest Cameroon. The sample was taken from 4 urban (2 rural and 2 public) and 2 (1 private and 1 public) rural schools (Navti et al., 2017, p. 2).
Identify Data Collection 

Identify how data were collected

Anthropometry- measurement activities in the study were carried out by trained nurses. They used a standardized protocol while children were in school with bodyweight being obtained using a portable digital scale (Navti et al., 2017, p. 3). 

Parents reported children’s socioeconomic background, physical activity, and sedentary lifestyle- information on these parameters through a pre-tested questionnaire (Navti et al., 2017, p. 3).

Out of school physical activities such as skipping ropes, hopscotching, ball playing, weight, height, and BMI were calculated using WHO AnthroPlus software (Navti et al., 2017, p. 3).

Summarize Data Collection Approach The final sample of questionnaires contained information from 262 boys and 260 girls who met all the inclusion criteria. Questionnaires were both in English and French and provided categories of frequency of participation in physical activity, sedentary lifestyle, and socioeconomic activities where parents had to make a choice (Navti et al., 2017, p. 3).
Discuss Data Analysis 

Include what types of statistical tests were used for the variables.

Researchers used the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test to assess the distribution of continuous variables. WHO AnthroPlus software was used to calculate the z-scores for weight, height, and BMI. Descriptive analysis for continuous variables and proportions for categorized variables was performed, and values reported as mean. To compare the means between boys and girls, researchers used parametric independent samples t-test.
Summarize Results of Study The study found that physical activity of over two times per week had an independent inverse relationship with overweight/obesity. Out of school sedentary lifestyle and socioeconomic class emerged as independent predictors of overweight/obesity. After combining overweight and obesity of boys and girls, more boys appeared to be affected than girls (p= 0.131) although the difference was insignificant.
Summary of Assumptions and Limitations 

Identify the assumptions and limitations from the article.

Report other potential assumptions and limitations of your review not listed by the author.

The study had several assumptions and limitations, an issue that is common in experimental studies. It assumed that boys and girls could be affected the same by physical activity changes after controlling design and age variables. Regarding limitations, Navti et al. (2017) noted that the study presented results of out-of-school activity that were not assessed with respect to the study’s pre-selected physical activity domains.  Secondly, the sample was not nationally representative such that it could be used to deduce the country’s situation. Other assumptions and limitations include the view that the level of physical activity was the most impacting and the inability to control the confounding effect of puberty.

Ethical Considerations

In experimental studies, ethical considerations are a must. In most cases, researchers engage in practices that may have far-reaching legal and ethical consequences. For instance, in data collection, researchers may obtain information without the participants’ consent. It is always crucial to inform participants about the intentions of the research and why it is important. The other important consideration is ensuring that participants have adequate information regarding the study’s length and issues like payments if they want any incentives. After the research is complete, the information collected should be used for the right reasons. According to Bromley et al. (2015), the subjects’ privacy should be protected by all means possible. Confidential data such as the names of participants must not be revealed or shared by all means. If the situation requires such a thing to happen, researchers must obtain the necessary legal protection to avoid risking the participants’ lives.

Besides the issue of privacy, researchers should never harm the subjects. Indeed, this requirement is an extension of the ethical principle of nonmaleficence in research, which means non-harming and inflicting the least possible harm if completely unavoidable (Morrison, 2019).  Instead of collecting data from parents, researchers could have collected data from children. Collecting data from children is also unethical since they cannot make informed decisions. Fortunately, this study avoids these issues to a significant extent. For instance, data is collected from parents after they consented, and permission to carry out the study was obtained from the relevant authority. Private information was treated confidentially as legally and ethically required

References

Bromley, E., Mikesell, L., Jones, F., & Khodyakov, D. (2015). From subject to participant: Ethics and the evolving role of community in health research. American Journal of Public Health105(5), 900-908. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2014.302403

Morrison, E. (2019). Ethics in health administration: A practical approach for decision makers. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Navti, L. K., Atanga, M. B., & Niba, L. L. (2017). Associations of out of school physical activity, sedentary lifestyle and socioeconomic status with weight status and adiposity of Cameroon children. BMC obesity4, 35. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40608-017-0171-3

Complete an article analysis and ethics evaluation of the research using the “Article Analysis and Evaluation of Research Ethics” template. See Chapter 5 of your textbook as needed, for assistance.

While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.

This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment (ATTACHED FILE) to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.

USE THIS ARTICLE

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