Assignment 3 Qualitative Research
Write a fully developed and detailed APA essay addressing each of the following points/questions. There is no required word count; be sure to completely answer all the questions for each question in detail. Separate each section in your paper with a clear heading that allows your professor to know which bullet you are addressing in that section of your paper. Support your ideas with at least two (2) source using citations in your essay. Make sure to cite using the APA writing style for the essay. The cover page and reference page are required. Review the rubric criteria for this assignment.
Conduct a literature search to select a qualitative research study on the topic identified in Module 1(HAND HYGIENE). Conduct an initial critical appraisal of the study.
(Topic: effect of hand hygiene protocol compared to not introducing a hand hygiene protocol help reduce the rate of hospital-acquired infections for a period of six months.)
Respond to the overview questions for the critical appraisal of qualitative studies, including:
- What type of qualitative research design was utilized to conduct the study?
- Are the results valid/trustworthy and credible?
- How were the participants chosen?
- How were accuracy and completeness of data assured?
- How plausible/believable are the results?
- Are implications of the research stated?
- May new insights increase sensitivity to others’ needs?
- May understandings enhance situational competence?
- What is the effect on the reader?
- Are the results plausible and believable?
- Is the reader imaginatively drawn to the experience?
- What are the results of the study?
- Does the research approach fit the purpose of the study?
- How does the researcher identify the study approach?
- Are the data collection and analysis techniques appropriate?
- Is the significance/importance of the study explicit?
- Does the literature support a need for the study?
- What is the study’s potential contribution?
- Is the sampling clear and guided by study needs?
- Does the researcher control selection of the sample?
- Do sample size and composition reflect the study needs?
- Is the phenomenon (human experience) clearly identified?
- Are data collection procedures clear?
- Are sources and means of verifying data explicit?
- Are researcher roles and activities explained?
- Are data analysis procedures described?
- Does analysis guide directions of sampling when it ends?
- Are data management processes described?
- What are the reported results (descriptive or interpretation)?
- How are specific findings presented?
- Are the data meanings derived from data described in context?
- Does the writing effectively promote understanding?
- Will the results help me care for my patients?
- Are the results relevant to persons in similar situations?
- Are the results relevant to patient values and/or circumstances?
- How may the results be applied to clinical practice?
Please be sure to answer the questions thoroughly using complete sentences and APA format. Explain responses to yes/no questions in detail by presenting information found in the study to support your response.
Type of Qualitative Research Design
Atif et al., (2019) study utilized an exploratory, descriptive research design. Semi-structured interviews and observations were adopted as data collection tools. Therefore, the semi-structured interview is made up of dialogue between participants and researchers, which relies on a flexible interview protocol. The same structured interview approach is also supplemented by comments, probes, and follow-up questions. The same as structured interview approach allows a researcher to explore the feelings, thoughts, and beliefs of research participants about a specific topic and dive deeply into sensitive and personal issues (Aspers & Corte, 2019). The main advantage of a semi-structured interview approach as a qualitative design is that it allows researchers to effectively prepare questions that can help to guide conversations and keep all the respondents on topic. Another significant advantage of semi-structured interviews is that they allow open-ended responses, which ensures that the participants in and research provide more in-depth information. Another qualitative research approach, semi-structured interviews, are also important in encouraging two-way communication and also allow such participants to open up on various sensitive issues (Aspers & Corte, 2019). Atif et al., (2019) study also relied on the observation research method. One of the main advantages of the observation research method is the simplicity of the method of data collection. The observational research methods do not require any technical knowledge among the researchers. The observational method also provides greater accuracy compared to other methods such as questionnaires and interviews. Through observations, a researcher can therefore examine the accuracy of the data that is supplied by the research participants. Finally, the observational method of qualitative research is important in formulating hypotheses. This is because researchers can get acquainted with certain phenomena as a result of continuously making observations. For instance, a researcher can know their perceptions problem, dislikes, likes, habits in different activities related to certain phenomena through observations (Aspers & Corte, 2019). By deciding to combine the semi-structured interview approach with the observational approach, the researchers in the Atif et al. (2019) study increased the quality and accuracy of the study results.
Validity Trustworthiness and Credibility of Study Results
The participants in the Atif et al., (2019) qualitative study were chosen through the snowballing technique in nine participating health care facilities. The snowballing technique is a probability sampling technique that will involve certain study subjects recruiting other subjects from their acquaintances. Through the snowballing technique, the sample research participants will therefore grow like a rolling snowball. The main advantage of the snowballing sampling technique that was adopted in the Atif et al. (2019) qualitative study was that the sampling approach was cost-effective and made it easier to recruit research participants. On the other hand, the main shortcomings of the snowballing sampling technique is that it can result in sampling bias which can significantly affect the accuracy of the results of a study.
The accuracy and completeness of the data in the Atif et al. (2019) qualitative study was assured through the data analysis approach adopted by the researchers. The researchers relied on an inductive approach to review observational data and data from transcripts. Such an approach helped to identify various themes and sub-themes related to the study subject of hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers.
The results of Atif et al., (2019) qualitative study are plausible and believable because researchers utilized a reliable qualitative research design which is the exploratory, descriptive research design. The researchers also recruited a large number of research participants and finally realized effective data analysis methods such as adopting the inductive approach to come up with various themes and sub-themes related to the study topic.
Implications of Research
The implications of Atif et al., (2019) qualitative study are explicitly stated in that the study highlights that continuous education among healthcare workers, the establishment of communication and cohesion, the provision of support and materials to enhance hand hygiene, and improvement of layout of healthcare facilities can help to boost hand hygiene compliance in-hospital care. The new insights from the qualitative study can therefore help to increase the sensitivity of leaders and healthcare workers in healthcare facilities towards the maintenance of hand hygiene compliance and also help to boost situational competence on various issues related to hand hygiene.
Effect on the Reader
The result of Atif et al., (2019) qualitative study are plausible and believable to the reader because the researchers rely on effective data collection methods and also adopt reliable data analysis tools. The researcher also relies on a large number of participants from different healthcare facilities, which improves the believability and plausibility of the study results.
Results of the Study
The central purpose of Atif et al., (2019) qualitative study is to determine the barriers to hand hygiene compliance in healthcare facilities and among healthcare workers and also to determine the enablers of hand hygiene compliance. The exploratory, descriptive research design adopted in the study fits the study purpose.