Application of Theoretical Concepts to Research

Application of Theoretical Concepts to Research

Application of Theoretical Concepts to Research 150 150 Peter

Application of Theoretical Concepts to Research

Background: contains two subsections, which includes a brief description of the theorist and the phenomenon of concern in the theory.
Theory Description: a description of each of the concepts in the theory, a diagram of the theory, and a description of how the concepts are related.
An Evaluation of the Theory: a description of the theory’s weaknesses and how the metaparadigms are described in the theory.
Application of the Theory:
Describe two studies that used the theory as a framework for their study, including a description of how they operationalized the concepts.
How could you use the theory to research a phenomenon in your area of clinical practice? How would you operationalize the concepts?

Sample Paper

BackgroundJean Watson’s Theory of Caring

Jean Watson is a nurse theorist born 1940 in Welch, West Virginia. She first graduated from nursing school, Lewis Gale School of Nursing, in 1961 and later pursued her studies at Colorado University, where she attained her Ph. D in 1973. Since then, she has worked in several nursing institutions, including teaching institutions, serving in different capacities. In her theory, Watson holds that nurses should express care for their patients. According to Watson, caring is essential in nursing, and it goes beyond providing simple medical procedures and cures. She believes that caring has been a central practice in the nursing profession; however, unlike knowledge that can be easily passed down to other generations, caring can only be passed down to future generations by creating a caring culture in the nursing profession. She believes that caring promotes health better than medical procedures. Caring creates and promotes an environment where patients are accepted as they are, which is essential for promoting the growth and health of patients. In her theory, she focuses on the ten carative factors which she presents as the foundation for caring in nursing (Alharbi & Baker, 2020).

Theory Description

Watson, in her theory, identifies three main carative factors that form the basic foundation and on which the other seven are derived. The basic concepts include establishing human-altruistic values, developing sensitivity to oneself and others, and instilling faith and hope. The establishment of human-altruistic values; involves recognizing and treating all the patients as individuals who are entitled to their values and opinions. All human beings develop humanistic values that they identify with and believe to be important, and therefore, for nurses, it is important to express values such as kindness and empathy to their patients despite the difference they might have in their values. Being kind and empathetic towards patients facilitates the development of a conducive relationship between nurses and patients, hence improving the care process (Jones, 2018).

Instilling faith and hope concept; involves incorporating the patient’s faith beliefs into the caring process. All patients will at least have faith-based beliefs concerning their health; identifying the beliefs and integrating them with the nursing process will facilitate positive interactions between care providers and patients. It also facilitates improved compliance with the care instructions, which is likely to result in better health outcomes. Cultivating sensitivity to oneself and others, nurses need to differentiate their needs and emotions from those of the patient. As care providers, this is essential in ensuring that nurses address and meet their patients’ needs and do not force on their patients what they feel to be right or appropriate in any situation. Jean Watson identifies patients as individuals with needs and is a recipient of care. The needs of the patients are diverse including physical, social, spiritual, and emotional needs, and the three major concepts address the different aspects of the patient. Therefore, while concepts can be different, they meet the needs of the patients (Jones, 2018)

An Evaluation of the Theory

Watson’s theory includes four major metaparadigms, including the human being/person, health, and nursing. A human being/person is referred to as a fully integrated self who needs to be cared for, nurtured, and understood to restore them to health. Watson considers human beings to be more than the total of his/her parts and needs. Health is defined as wellness, including physical, social, and mental functioning. She also defined health as the absence of illnesses or the efforts put in place to eliminate illnesses in patients. Watson defined the nursing metaparadigm as the science of health experiences and people, arbitrated by professional, scientific, personal, and ethical care interactions. Nursing is mainly concerned with health promotion, preventing illnesses, and caring for the patients to restore them to health. However, in her theory, Watson did not explicitly define the fourth metaparadigm; environment. However, she insisted on the 10 carative factors that she believes nurses need to address when caring for their patients (Alharbi & Baker, 2020).

One of the major weaknesses of Jean Watson’s theory of caring is that the theory does not consider the biophysical needs to be important. The theory mainly focuses on addressing the psychosocial needs while providing little focus on the biophysical needs, which most patients and care providers consider to be more important than spiritual needs. The theory advocates for the development of personal relationships between care providers and patients, which can be impractical in healthcare settings where there are huge numbers of patients with urgent needs and most of them are discharged faster, and it is therefore impossible to develop personal relationships with them (Alharbi & Baker, 2020).  

 Describe two studies that used the theory as a framework for their study, including a description of how they operationalized the concepts.

Suliman et al. (2009) utilized Watson’s theory of caring to explore Saudi patients’ perceptions of essential caring behaviors and those commonly addressed by nurses in a multicultural environment. The researchers administered a questionnaire to the participants to determine the differences between the perceived importance of caring behavior and the frequency of attendance to the behavior by the nurses. Caring is a universal phenomenon; however, several factors can affect it, such as cultural differences between care providers and patients. When they are from different cultural backgrounds, they are likely to have different perceptions and interpretations of caring. The researchers used 10 carative factors outlined in Watson’s theory to develop the seven subscales such as faith-hope, humanism, and sensitivity, from which they developed a set of questions they would then provide to their participants to determine their perception of care. The seven subscales developed a 63-item questionnaire with a 5-point scale ranging from (1) little importance to (5) much importance.

Özkan et al. (2013) conducted a study using Watson’s theory of caring to explore the impact of a theory-based care approach to infertile women on patient outcomes. Infertility is a common condition that affects about 15% of married couples. In Turkey, it is estimated that about 9% of all married women have never had a child, and approximately 1.5 million couples are infertile. The devastating psychosocial impacts of infertility have been demonstrated in several instances. They include anxiety, depression, stigmatization loneliness, among others. Therefore, Watson’s theory of caring was suitable to assist theory-based care for infertile women in turkey. The researchers focused on a case study of Mrs. A, who could not conceive. Throughout her treatment, the nurse provided care guided by the 10 curative factors in Watson’s theory. The nurse focused on developing a personal relationship with the patient to open up about her emotions, as recommended by the theory of caring. The interviews were conducted seven-time from the initial visit to the clinic until the final 7 visit, after which the nurse assessed patient progress over the past interview to determine any psychosocial improvements.