NSG 124 – Pharmacology
This course introduces the student to the role of pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of illness and in the promotion of wellness in patients throughout the lifespan. These concepts provide the basis for the study of drug actions, indications, side effects, nursing implications, and patient education.
NSG 124 – Pharmacology
The purpose of this essay is to discuss the different drug types, the route of absorption and the affects that these routes have. There are different types of drugs widely available on many street corners. Inaba & Cohen discuss the classifications being uppers, downers, and hallucinogens; the substances consider uppers would be bath salts, amphetamines, plant stimulants, cocaine, nicotine, and caffeine [Ina14]. The substances that are considered “downers” are heroin, sedative-hypnotics, opiates/ opioids, and alcohol; and finally, PCP and LSD are known as hallucinogens [Ina14].
The routes of administration Doweiko (2015) discuss being parenteral, transdermal, enteral, inhalation, and intranasal [Dow15]. Substances that are inhaled through the mouth, such as smoking, is classified as inhalation; ejection of substances into the body is known as parenteral administration [Dow15]. When a substance is “snorted” through the sinus cavity this route of administration is categorized as intranasal; when a compound is absorbed through the skin the absorption rate is a lot slower, most substance users prefer a different administration rout; this process is known as transdermal[Dow15]. And finally, Doweiko (2015) discuss when compounds are administrated orally the compound is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract, this is known as enteral [Dow15].
How a substance is administered will depend on the absorption of the substance and the effect that substance has on the individual. Dowieko (2015) discusses how the “administration of the substance, the rate of blood flow at the site of entry, molecular characteristics of the compound itself, if the compound was taken on a full or empty stomach, and are other drug molecules a factor” all of these factors will affect the high that the substance provides for the individual [Dow15]. To achieve a rough estimate of the substances effectiveness, duration of the effect, and the length of time the substance will remain in the body health care professionals need to understand the half-life of the substance, there is forms of half-life, distribution, therapeutic, and eliminations [Dow15]. Distribution is the amount of time it takes the substance to get through the general circulation, therapeutic is the duration of the effect, and eliminations is the amount of time it takes for the substance to be fifty percent eliminated from the body [Dow15].
Administration and absorption are factors that can affect the high, along with the situation and environment the individual is in and the frame of mind at the time of use. The road to recovery that Clinton and Scalise (2013) discuss is recognizing and admitting, cleaning out the infection, renewing the mind, and exercise the will [DrC15]. Individuals need to understand that their help comes from God and He can help them to conquer substance abuse and use, Jesus Christ is their hope in this life. “Submit yourselves, then, to God. Resist the devil, and he will flee from you” James 4:7 [New95]. May there never be a time in this life that health care professionals give up the fight to continue research and study to find a way to help those with substance abuse and use difficulties. May the individuals realize they need Christ to achieve freedom from the chains of addiction.