1. I would like you to find two examples of French Renaissance furniture not seen in the lecture. There are some websites in your slide list where you can find some examples, and the Victoria and Albert Museum has some examples. You can also Google Hugues Sambin and find some of his work. Be sure to check the date (16th century) on your choices and make sure they are not “revival” pieces from the 19th century.
Do you think your pieces are Francis I style (first half of 16th century) or Henry II style (2nd half of 16th century)? Why?
Please include an image of each of your choices as well as a link to the websites where you found the images.
2. Research another French Renaissance chateau not mentioned in the lecture. (I’ve given you some websites on the slide list where you can find some examples.) What is the history of this chateau and for whom was it built? Please include at least two thumbnail images of the exterior and at least one thumbnail image of the interior. Your writing should be at least 300 words.
Extra credit: What is the story of the French Renaissance cabinet at the Getty Museum?
www.getty.edu/art/exhibitions/cabinet/ Also watch the videos on the right hand side of the page.
What were some of the scientific methods used to authenticate it? How does the Getty cabinet compare with the BesanÃ§on cabinet? Your writing should be at least 300 words.
The main door of the parliament of Burgundy in Dijon. The door was sculpted by Hugues Sambin in 1580. https://www.wga.hu/html_m/s/sambin/parliame.html
Henry II Table – School of Hugues Sambin Second half of the 16th Century
The furniture is Henry 11 style. This style is distinguished by the carving approach and the details of ornamentation of the furniture. The first image shows the grace of line and fine details while the second image shows lavish carving which suggests richness. Henry 11 furniture displayed an architectural character just like the gothic predecessor. The furniture has niches which contain statuettes. In the lavish manner characteristic of Henry 11 style, these figures seem to be gold painted. The second image furniture also seems to have new details such as pierced shapes which were Henry 11 style. Most of Henry style 11 Tables and doors were rectangular (Wheeler, 2017). The tables had four balusters which were supporting a canopy and feet carvings which represented gryphon’s or narrower at the feet compared to the head and only three balusters which supported the canopy, one at the foot and two at the head symbolizing a man and woman standing, resting on T-shaped pedestal. Most of these features are represented in the two images above. The table is carved richly with the motifs of chimaeras and caryatides and even colonnades as well as longitudinal arcades, which gives it intense architectural feeling (European furniture styles, n.d.). This form of carving was demonstrated in Henry 11 style.
The Château of Fontainbleau
The Fontainebleau was chosen by King Francois after he was released from captivity in Spain and moved to Paris in France. The king chose architect Giles le Breton who started the work in 1528 by renovating of the medieval oval courtyard (Olin 2017). In the 12th century, the tower was conserved, and a residential block constructed, its front ornamented with pillars and high craned windows and triangular frontons which suited a feature of the different new style. The old gatehouse was interchanged with a new construction Port composing grand loggias one beyond the other that was modelled after Naples palaces. Cheval Blanc was the second courtyard consisting of three elongated wings that were constructed of bricks and a mix of cement and rubble, which later turned into a corporate combination in the French Recovery architecture.
The circular medieval posts of old Chateau were interchanged with high square pavilion roofs and windows. The third phase consisted of a new gallery connecting the ancient and new buildings. This new gallery decor was made by a craftsman who reached in 1530. The final project was an outstanding stairway located on the oval court. It had a classical columns portico like a triumphal arch. The design was a symbol of more originality beginning in French Renaissance architecture. In 1530, decorations in the interiors of the new rooms were done by the first school of Fontainebleau. Sculptural frames, all forms cartouches and medallions were decorated in high relief. The architecture was decorated with putti sculpture, fruit garlands and heroic mythology figures. After the death of Francis in 1547 king, henry II continued enlarging the chateau. (Crotti, Guélat, Bullinger & Pignat 2016). East wing lower court was extended and decorated with a famed horseshoe designed staircase. The new building was designed to contain the king’s new apartments. Painters continued decorating the gallery of Ulysses and new ballroom with murals framed in ornamentally sculptured stucco
French Renaissance Cabinet at the Getty Museum
Five years back, many people thought that the cabinet was made in the 19th-century work claimed to have been made in the 16th-century. Meaning it was considered fake. When the piece was examined again by scholars in 2001, they made a very dissimilar conclusion that the cabinet was made 1580 and it is one of the uncommon and highly precious cabinets from the United States French renaissance. It was bought by Paul Getty in 1971 and he bought it against his curator’s advice who thought it was not authentic. The cabinet seemed to be in a doubtfully pristine state and the exterior was covered with decorated wax, which suggested that somebody had attempted to make it appear older than it was. The professionals concluded that the creation was renaissance revitalization product of the 19th century when American industrial magnates cracked up renaissance approach furniture in counting may fake from cash impoverished European aristocrats. $1700 was paid by Getty for the cabinet a far cry from the asking price which was $46,640 some 50 years before (Paul Getty Trust (n.d.). The uncertain cabinet was by no means exhibited in the Getty Museum until now.
Scientific Methods used to Authenticate It
Dendro-chronology or tree-ring dating tool was the first scientific tool to be used for the piece. This method revealed that oak tree was used to create the structural panels and the tree harvested in the late 1574 or early in 1575 in Burgundy, found in southeastern France. Carbon dating was used to date the exterior wood of the cabinet. It is walnut, a timber which has an uneven development outline and cannot be dated by dendro-chronology. Minute trials from the walnut and tattered ends of the silk and linen line in the core drawer were taken by the scientists. All these trials dated between 1400 and 1600 (Paul Getty Trust J. (n.d.)
Compare the Getty Cabinet with the Besançon Cabinet
The two cabinets have undergone through an extensive analysis to find out authenticity the subtle and minute clues coincidences of the approach showed that the cabinets may well have been prepared by the same artist or the same groups of artists. The two also have alike decorations, brass hardware and paintings. Besides, they have similar bench dog marks, which strongly suggest that they were made in the same workshop. The tree-ring patterns on the oak of the two cabinets are also virtually identical. Some of the panels of these cabinets match so closely such that they almost certainly come from the same tree. Dated 1580, The Besancon cabinet was made for the governor of Besancon, Jean Gauthot, D’ancier, an inventory of his son’s possessions describes another cabinet which may be Getty cabinet (Paul Getty Trust (n.d.)