Birth Control Options
A 17-year-old sexually active female presents to your clinic and reports that she is interested in starting birth control. Briefly discuss at least THREE birth control options and be sure to mention the pros/cons/indications/contraindications for each method.
*Jackeline can you please use 1. IUD, 2.Nexplanon implant 3. Depto medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) and if you can put introduction and conclusion.
Birth Control Options
Unwanted teen pregnancies are among the leading causes of teen school dropout globally. To combat this trend, policies to facilitate increased and equitable access to contraceptives among teens continue to be implemented. There are many birth control methods that teens can use. Access to these contraceptives promotes responsible sex behavior. However, to make informed decisions, teens must be fully informed on the available contraceptive methods. The various forms of contraceptives that teenagers can use include but not limited to: intrauterine device (IUD), Nexplanon implant and Depto medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)
IUD is a “T” shaped device placed inside the uterus to interrupt dissemination. IDUs can be hormonal or non-hormonal(copper). Hormonal IDU prevents dissemination by releasing hormone progestin, while copper prevents dissemination by triggering the immune system. They are indicated for women at low risk of STDs because they don’t prevent them. The advantages of IDUs include longevity (3-10 years), effectiveness (more than 99%), inexpensive: involve one time cost, they are reversible and convenience. However, IDUs do not protect against STDs, the insertion process can be painful and they may cause heavy, irregular and painful periods. IDUs are contraindicated for pregnant women and those with STDs, pelvic infection, cervical or uterine cancer, unexplained vaginal bleeding (Esposito & LoGiudice, 2019).
A Nexplanon implant is a tiny, thin rod inserted under the skin of the upper arm. It is a hormonal contraceptive. The contraceptive releases progestin in the bloodstream, which then thickens the mucus on the cervix, preventing the sperm from reaching the egg. The method is indicated for women at low risk of STDs and those with estrogen intolerance. Advantages of this method include Longevity (3- 5 years), its reversible, effectiveness and (more than 99%). However, it can cause irregular, heavier or prolonged periods, the process of insertion can be uncomfortable, does not protect against STDs, and its effectiveness is affected by some medications (Menon, 2020). The contraceptive method is contraindicated in pregnant women, and those with arterial disease, liver disease or breast cancer.
DMPA is a hormonal contraceptive. It is administered in the form of a three-month progestin-only injection. The hormone suppresses ovulation and thickens cervical mucus to prevent the sperm from reaching the egg. The contraceptive method is indicated for women at low risk of STDs, those contraindicated to estrogen, and those with health problems such as anemia or endometriosis (Rott, 2019). The major pros of this contraceptive are that it decreases menstrual cramps and pain, lessens menstrual blood flow and decreases the risk of endometrial cancer. However, it does not prevent STDs and its effectiveness is short term (three months). The contraceptive is contraindicated for people with breast cancer, unexplained vaginal bleeding, liver disease, history of depression and cardiovascular disease (Katz et al., 2020).
In conclusion, contraceptive use is one of the approaches that can help reduce teen pregnancy. However, teenagers need to learn that while hormonal contraceptives are more than 99% effective in preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against STDs. Besides the use of condoms, abstinence is the surest way teenagers can prevent both pregnancy and STDs.