A 17 year-old sexually active female presents to your clinic and reports that she is interested in starting birth control. Briefly discuss at least THREE birth control options and be sure to mention the pros/cons/indications/contraindications for each method.
Length: A minimum of 275 words, not including references
Citations: At least 2 high-level scholarly reference in APA 7from within the last 5 years
PLEASE SUBMIT BY 6PM CT
Teen pregnancy claims a significant amount of the US tax money due to the increased health care, foster care, and incarceration rates among children of teen parents. Poor access to contraceptives among teenagers is one of the leading causes of teen pregnancy. The increasing access to contraceptives among teenagers enabled by policy actions has significantly reduced teen pregnancy in the US (Sherin & Waters, 2019). There are several contraceptive choices for 17 year old, depending on availability, convenience, side effects and personal preference.
Intrauterine Devices (IUDs)
An IUD is a small T-shaped device placed in the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It works by interrupting insemination through a triggered inflammation response in the uterus lining. The device can be copper or hormonal, and it’s inserted into the uterus through the cervix. IUD is indicated for parous women in stable, monogamous relationships and at low risk of STDs. It is contraindicated for pregnant women and those with unexplained vaginal bleeding or distorted uterine anatomy. The pros of this contraceptive method are that it is highly effective, has more than 99% effectiveness, offers convenience and longevity, doesn’t require preparation before sex, and works for 3 to 10 years. It is also reversible and economical. However, it has some cons. The insertion might be painful, and the IUDs don’t offer protection against it. It may also cause heavier periods (Sherin & Waters, 2019).
The hormonal contraceptive entails a small plastic rod inserted under the skin in the upper arm. It works by releasing steady pregestational hormone in the body, which prevents pregnancy by thickening the cervical mucus and thinning the uterine lining. It is indicated for all women with a low risk of STDs. The pros of this contraceptive include a more than 99% effectiveness, longevity, can be removed any time followed by a quick return to fertility, and does not contain estrogen. However, it has some cons. Implant contraceptives that do not protect against STIs must be inserted by a trained practitioner and removed after three years. In addition, the contraception choice is contraindicated in women allergic to any components of the implant, cardiovascular conditions, and unexplained vaginal bleeding.
Birth Control Pills
Birth control pills are hormonal contraceptives consumed orally. They require daily intake for them to be effective in preventing pregnancy. They work by releasing hormones that stop ovulation. Birth control pills are indicated for women with a low risk of STIs and menstrual pain or irregular menstruation. Some of the pros of oral contraceptives include high effectiveness if correctly taken; they can regulate the menstrual cycle and are reversible. However, oral contraceptives don’t protect against STIs and require daily intake. These contraceptive choices are contraindicated in women with breast cancer, hypertension, and liver disease (Galdamez et al., 2020).
Galdamez, C., Lerma, V., Martinez, L., & Martinez, L. (2020). Types of Contraceptives and Risk for Blood Clot Development. https://hdl.handle.net/10657/7587
Sherin, M., & Waters, J. (2019). Long-acting reversible contraceptives for adolescent females: a review of current best practices. Current opinion in pediatrics, 31(5), 675-682. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0000000000000811